Civil Justice

In a rule of law society, ordinary people should be able to resolve their grievances and obtain remedies in conformity with fundamental rights through formal institutions of justice in a peaceful and effective manner, rather than resorting to violence or self-help. Civil justice requires that the system be accessible, affordable, effective, impartial, and culturally competent. Accessibility includes general awareness of available remedies; availability and affordability of legal advice and representation; and absence of excessive or unreasonable fees and hurdles. Impartiality includes absence of arbitrary distinctions, such as social and economic status, as well as decisions that are free of improper influence by public officials or private interests. Effective civil justice also implies that court proceedings are conducted in a timely manner and judgments are enforced without unreasonable delay. Finally, in a rule of law society, it is essential that alternative dispute mechanisms provide effective access to justice, while refraining from binding persons who have not consented to be bound by the mechanism.

This factor also measures if the system provides for fair and effective enforcement. It consists of 57 variables combined to form the following seven sub-factors:


7.1 People can access and afford civil justice
7.2 Civil justice is free of discrimination
7.3 Civil justice is free of corruption
7.4 Civil justice is free of improper government influence
7.5 Civil justice is not subject to unreasonable delays
7.6 Civil justice is effectively enforced
7.7 ADRs are accessible, impartial, and effective